Croatia is a presidential, multi-party parliamentary democracy located in south-eastern Europe. The country's population is 4.4 million with annual 2008 GDP just above 10,500 euro per capita.
The major language is Croatian and the major religion Christianity. Nearly one-third of citizens live in the greater area of the capital, Zagreb. The country area of 56,594 square kilometres swings in a horseshoe shape from a thousand islands and the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, across hilly central Croatia, to the continental Pannonian Plains in the east.
As a state within Yugoslavia, Croatia held its first multi-party elections since World War II in 1990. A 1991-1995 war broke out after it declared independence. The war ruined the economy, notably tourism, and left one-third of the territory's property destroyed, and over 10,000 casualties. In the post-war era, the country was under a rather autocratic regime, which ended by opposition victory in 2000 elections. The new government introduced democratic changes that also brought about the freedom of the media.
A NATO member since 2009, Croatia is hoping to become a member of the European Union by 2012. In terms of the EU, Croatian population is about 1.2 percent and economy about 0.26 percent of GDP. The EU accounts for two thirds of country's foreign trade, with Italy, Germany and Austria being the most prominent partners.
2. Traditional Media
- Television is a predominant source of information;
- The audience leadership belongs to the public television, but private televisions are narrowing the gap to it;
- Two private music-only stations are leaders among radio audience;
- The penetration of cable and digital television is low compared to analogical receivers;
- National Telecom Agency plans a full digital television coverage by 2011.
2.1 Print Media
- There are no official figures in Croatia that would accurately describe the media landscape
- There is a steady decline in production of newspaper
- Newspapers are sold mainly at news-stands
- Newspapers are becoming more tabloid-like
- The magazine market is led by women’s magazines.
The media struggle for more ads reflects in more commercial and more tabloid-like media, and a in decreasing quality of professionalism. In addition, nearly 20 years of a post-socialist period were harsh for the press: five years of war and another five years of conservative government have left its toll so that independent and accurate reporting is still not a predominant quality of the media. The public does not perceive journalism as being independent: a late 2008 research reveals that as many as 54 percent of citizens consider journalists to be influenced by various interest groups and/or politics, while about two in three citizens consider journalists somewhat or very corrupt.
Despite laws ordering publishers to publish their circulation figures, the lack of penalties for disregard is misused by all: besides public opinion surveys, there are no official figures that would accurately indicate the general readership. An official database by the Chamber of Commerce on quantities of newsprint used in the production of print media shows a steady decline. In 2009, on an average day, an estimated 420,000 copies of daily newspapers are printed, a decline of about 25 percent compared to 2007.
The largest daily newspapers, 24 Sata, Jutarnji List, Večernji List and Slobodna Dalmacija, struggle for readership – and advertising – with sensational news stories and photos. The pressure to be more 'commercial' discourages good investigative reporting and turns the newspapers into full-colour layout filled with photographs and ads. In his editorial about pressure from advertisers, a deputy editor-in-chief of Jutarnji List wrote in spring 2006 that an advertiser blackmailed the paper with annulment of their rich advertising contract after having disliked a news report. In 2009, reporters from major media have protested against pressure from advertisers and politicians to impose self-censorship over professional reporting.
After only a couple of years from entering the market, the tabloid 24 Sata (or 24 Hours) took the leading position – in 2007 it reached and remained around 30 percent of total readership. It was launched in 2005 following plans of its publisher Styria to become the market leader through, what Styria itself called, a 'battle for Croatia'. The paper is aimed at younger generations, it is abundant with photographs and features short stories. It is also sold at a cheaper price than other leading dailies, and has a smaller, tabloid format.
The two, second positioned dailies – Jutarnji List and Večernji List - had about 16 percent of average daily readership in 2005, but later on had to give in to the newcomer 24 Sata. In 2009, their readership decreased to below 14 percent, or an estimated hundred thousand copies sold on an average day.
Jutarnji List (or Morning Paper) was launched in 1997 by a local publisher, EuropaPress Holding (or EPH), which sold 50 percent of its ownership to German publisher WAZ in 1998. Today EPH is the market leader with more than a dozen publications, including two daily newspapers, weeklies Globus and Arena and Croatian editions of Playboy and Cosmopolitan.
Once the leading state-owned daily, Večernji List (or Evening Paper) was bought by Austrian publisher Styria in 2000. The new owners kept its traditional A3 format but adapted its layout to look more like Styria's Austrian tabloid.
The fourth best-selling national newspaper is Slobodna Dalmacija. It owes its position to its regional dominance in the region of Dalmatia, where it keeps around 50 percent of the readership. Among local media struggling to gain profit in this small market, a rather respected regional daily, Novi List, scored fifth in the country with four percent of readership in 2005 through 2009, but first in the Rijeka region with more than 50 percent.
Among weekly magazines, the leaders are women's magazines Gloria and Story with 8 and 5 percent, respectively, of average readership in 2009, showing a steady decline of readership from 10 and 6.5 percent in 2005, following a general trend in weekly publications. Political magazines scored third and fourth: the average readership of Globus and Nacional was near 4 percent and just above 3 percent, also showing a decline from above 5 percent in 2005. Both won their position among political magazines through investigative reporting but also, at times ,sensationalist stories and controversial interviews.
Prior to the country's democratization in the 1990s, all major newspapers were published by a state-owned company, Vjesnik. Still public, this publisher issues only one newspaper, the daily Vjesnik. With six decades of being the leading newspaper in former Yugoslavia, Vjesnik is the only daily newspaper regarded as pursuing objective and professional reports. However, the state ownership apparently prevents it from acquiring an audience above a mere 1 percent of average issue readership (2009), which could roughly translate to five thousand copies sold.
In an attempt to boost their sales, in 2004 daily newspapers offered various books along with newspaper copies. In 2005 and 2006, the gifts became attractive prizes such as cars, motorbikes, personal computers. However, the research into readership showed no particular gains, except for the new daily newspaper 24 Sata, launched in mid-2005. Its release brought the publisher Styria a leadership in the market of daily newspapers: Večernji List and 24 Sata on aggregate held nearly 45 percent of average readership in late 2009. Publishers continue to insert various glossy magazines in daily newspapers.
In Croatia, daily newspapers are sold at news-stands and in grocery stores and supermarkets.
The radio market amounts to 150 radio stations, only six licensed for national coverage. Of all these as many as three state-owned radio stations are among the top ten stations ranked by audience. But they cannot take the lead from private music-only broadcasters.
In competition with public radio stations which air mostly news, political shows, classical music and art shows, private stations took a commercial attitude: steady market leaders are broadcasters which air only music and brief news on the hour. Two national broadcasters the Narodni (or People's) radio airing only domestic music, and Otvoreni (or Open) radio, have been scoring since 2005 through 2009 an average 11 and 7 percent, respectively, of average daily reach among population. After its launch in 2008, a regional radio Antena Zagreb, which covers the area of Croatian capital, has jumped into the group of leaders with its 8.5 percent of daily reach in 2009 on a national level. The radio owes its growing popularity to a new concept introduced through foreign consultants, which revived a declining radio station.
The government controls approximately 40 percent of radio stations. In particular through local politicians, it influences both their editors and the editorial policies. Regional journalists also struggle with financial problems, both in public and private radio stations. The situation in news reporting has been improving by syndication of news broadcast by Radio Mreža (Radio Network), a non-governmental organisation which provides a news service free of charge to smaller radio stations.
Among more than 20 Croatian TV channels, only four are licensed for national coverage – two state-owned and two private channels. The state-owned television is the leader by audience on the national level.
Television is a predominant source of information in Croatia. Nearly all households have a colour television set, while half of the population do not read any newspapers and listen to any radio. The share of advertisement revenues increased for television to 77 percent or nearly 700 million euro in 2009, matching an increasing entertaining but also news reporting content of the four national broadcasters. The competition of four national TV channels sheds some new light onto the reporting arena.
The largest and most influential Croatian television still belongs to the chain of the state-owned HRT (Hrvatska Radio-Televizija or Croatian Radio-Television). The television company was founded 50 years ago and it was one of the largest television centres in former Yugoslavia. In the past, HRT was subjected to political control, particularly until the 2000 government was elected. It operates two channels: HTV1 and HTV2, with an aggregate audience share of 45 percent in 2009, which has declined by 10 percent in four years, mainly because of improved quality of two private national broadcasters. Public polls show its relentlessly influential position among citizens: its main headline news is the most prominent source of public information. Along TV commercials, above 50 percent of its revenues are still paid by the monthly compulsory subscription levied from households with a television set – and nearly all households have one. Its share in advertisement revenues has been on a steady decline, to reach only 25 percent of the television ads in 2009.
Nova TV was founded in 2000 by Central European Media Enterprises (or CME), and it was the first commercial television with national coverage. German TV channel RTL launched its Croatian outlet in April 2004. Their more relaxed approach, with movies, soaps, fun games and other entertainment, has been increasingly matched by the public broadcaster HTV. In return, Nova TV and RTL have extended their news departments and increased the length and number of informative programmes, having as a result a steady growth of audience. With such approach, the main evening news of Nova TV and RTL have reached in 2009 an audience of about 20 percent, narrowing the gap to a steady 25 percent of HRT's main news audience. The improved quality of the programmes has been purported by the shift of the advertisers: the cake of the total advertisement revenues had reached 30 percent for Nova TV and 27 percent for RTL in 2009.
Besides these four national TV channels, another 20 private channels broadcast on a regional level. They are constantly faced with financial problems.
Until 1990 within Yugoslavia, Croatian feature films were nominated for the Foreign Language Film Academy Award, awarded at major film festivals, with particular importance of Croatian animators. Having underwent crisis in the 1990's, when most of the theatres were closed and no film viable without state aid, cinema flourished again after political changes in 2000. Movies of several directors were awarded or screened at international film festivals.
Croatian cinema regularly produces between 6 and 9 feature films per year. Generously visited and published are film festivals such as Motovun Film Festival, Zagreb Film Festival and Pula Film Festival, as well as the ZagrebDox festival of documentaries.The Government established the Croatian Audiovisual Centre in 2008 as its strategic agency for the audiovisual sector in Croatia. It has assumed the overall responsibility for the growth of audiovisual industry, and its activities include the financing of production, distribution and promotion of audiovisual works, as well as professional training.
Five years into market liberalisation, fixed telephone services are offered by nine commercial operators, with the former monopolist T-HT still holding over 80 percent of financial share in the market. The number of fixed telephony users was 40 percent of the adult population in 2008, which shows a slow decline of about one percent annually. A growing competition among fixed telephony providers has brought about a high 9.5 percent rate of operator switches by early 2009. There were 130 percent of mobile phone users, which is an increase of 20 percent to 2007.The number of broadband internet and cable internet access is nearing 20 percent of the population, or more than a million users, while the number of internet users reached nearly 50 percent in the end of 2008, which is an increase of 25 percent compared to the previous year.
In autumn 2006 HT, by far the leading national telephone operator and Internet provider, bought Iskon, its major competitor, having thus affirmed its monopoly in providing Internet access. The buyout followed promises of the Agency for Telecommunications that it would use all means to prevent the buyout in an attempt to liberalize the market. A novelty in 2006, the IPTV MAXtv, launched by telecommunications company HT, covers more than 90 percent of DSL subscribers, and had 150 thousand subscribers in 2009. The service provides also video on demand.
After a decade of satellite dishes popping up on Croatian roofs in the 1990s, a dozen of cable operators have moved into the television market since year 2000, having penetrated some 160,000 households by mid-2006. In 2008, they had 140,000 thousand subscribers. Their coverage is fragmentary, mostly owing to high costs of cable installation and concession licences. Besides all available terrestrial programmes, the cable operators broadcast dozens of international satellite television stations. Along with television, some cable operators also provide Internet cable access.
Since 2003, the Croatian Telecommunications Agency has been developing plans for a digital switch-over and full coverage by 2011. The multiplex signal includes all four national television broadcasters – HTV 1 and 2, Nova TV and RTL. Considering an overwhelming number of terrestrial receivers, initially the Agency plans to air only DVB-T signal for terrestrial reception of television programmes.
- National daily newspapers:
- Regional daily newspapers:
- Weekly newspapers:
- Regional weekly newspapers:
3. New Media
- The broadband access rate is below the EU's average;
- The rate of Internet use is above 50 percent;
- Major newspapers are among the top twenty websites;
- Leading websites provide entertainment, job ads, health issues and lifestyle stories.
The country's economic post-war recovery became evident also in the personal computer and Internet market: the broadband access has reached 19.7 percent in 2009 among users above 15 years of age, or nearly 900 thousand users. However, this is still below EU's 2008 average of nearly 50 percent. The growth is provided by a developing infrastructure. In the end of 2005, this rate was under 4 percent compared to the EU's average of nearly 12 percent. In the broadband access, 14 percent belongs to fixed communications and 5.5 percent to mobile access.
Half of Croatia's households had access to the internet in 2009, compared to 45 percent in 2008, and 39 percent had broadband access, with an annual growth rate of 51 percent. In 2009, 35 percent of users have used the internet daily, and another 10 percent several times a week. However, nearly 50 percent never used the internet. Only ten percent of users have ordered or bought goods or services for private use over the internet, as opposed to 37 percent which is the EU average.
The increasing number of internet users proves to be a fertile ground for a growing number of internet portals - all major newspapers had a website in 2009 and featured among the top 20 Croatian sites. The leading Croatian websites contain scarce news compared to lots of entertainment, job ads, health issues and lifestyle stories. In 2006, the top sites were offered by two main Internet providers, T-portal by HT and net.hr by Iskon, offering mainly entertainment, but also news by the public news agency HINA. Among the leading ten sites were also sites of two leading daily newspapers, Jutarnji list and Večernji list.
3.2 Digital media
The number of broadband internet and cable internet access is nearing 20 percent of the population, or more than a million users, while the number of internet users reached nearly 50 percent at the end of 2008, which is an increase of 25 percent compared to the previous year. The penetration rate of mobile phones reached 30 percent in 2009, with nearly 80 percent of the population owing a mobile phone. Despite a growth in the number of wireless internet users, which increased by more than 40 percent, and a more than doubled data transfer measured in MB, comparing Q1 2009 to Q1 2008, the penetration of wireless broadband internet is still below 12 percent. In 2009, three mobile phone operators began introducing HSPA+, the fast data transfer technology for wireless internet, in major Croatian centres.
The number of readers of Croatian internet sites rose from 56 percent of internet users in 2008 to nearly 65 percent in 2009. Regardless, the advertising share the sites took on aggregate did not exceed three percent. The 2009 top ten sites offered mainly news and lifestyle stories, along two advertising sites. The leaders are three internet-only sites (net.hr, index.hr, and t-portal.hr), and the sites of the leading daily newspapers (24 Sata, Jutarnji List, Večernji List and regional Slobodna Dalmacija), with five to ten percent of internet users. The majority of their users are in four major Croatian cities. The national television broadcaster Nova TV had its site among the top ten, offering a selection of their television news on demand.
Since 2003, the Croatian Telecommunications Agency has been developing plans for a digital television switch-over and full coverage by 2011. The multiplex signal includes all four national television broadcasters - HTV 1 and 2, Nova TV and RTL. Considering an overwhelming number of terrestrial receivers, initially the Agency plans to air only DVB-T signal for terrestrial reception of television programmes.
- Web portals
- Daily news sites
- Television web sites
4. Media organisations
4.1 News agencies
The most prominent Croatian news agency is the state-owned Hrvatska Izvještajna Novinska Agencija (HINA) or Croatian Reporting News Agency, and it reaches out to literally all media. Founded in 1991, it grew into a full-service agency, which provides 200/300 news on daily basis, including politics, sports, science, business and entertainment.
The other two news agencies are IKA and STINA. Owned by Croatian Episcopal Conference, IKA – or Informative Catholic Agency – is the primary source for journalists covering the Catholic Church. STINA is a regional private agency, specialized in diversity and minority reporting.
International news agencies that operate in Croatia are the Associated Press (AP), Agence France Press (AFP) and Reuters, which sell their services to about a dozen major media. The AP and Reuters also sell their TV feeds.
An independent radio agency, Radijska Mreža (or Radio Network) has been broadcasting daily news free-of-charge to regional radio stations, whose economic difficulties prevent them from employing news reporters. The agency is financed through funding.
4.2 Trade unions
Nearly all Croatian journalists are members of Hrvatsko novinarsko društvo or Croatian Journalists' Association. The organization is an active participant in democratization of media laws, it services some social aspects of its members and issues its regular paper distributed among members free of charge. It was founded in 1910 and it is one of the oldest professional associations in Croatia. It became a member to the International Federation of Journalists in 1992. Among more than 3,000 members, nearly 60 percent work in Zagreb, the country’s capital. The Association works closely with the Trade Union of Croatian Journalists, mostly in protection of journalists' labour and social rights.
Hrvatska udruga radija i novina HURIN (Croatian Association of Radio Stations and Newspapers) is an organization of 140 radio stations and 30 regional newspapers. Sixteen largest publishers are members of Udruga novinskih izdavača (Association of Newspaper Publishers), which operates as part of Croatian Employers' Association. Together with HURIN it covers about 80 percent of employees in Croatian media.
4.3 Other media outlets
An independent radio agency, Radijska Mreža (or Radio Network) has been broadcasting daily news free-of-charge to those regional radio stations, whose economic difficulties prevent from employing news reporters. The agency is financed through funding.
- News agencies
- Association of Newspaper Publishers (Udruga novinskih izdavača)
- Croatian Association of Radio Stations and Newspapers (Hrvatska udruga radija i novina or HURIN)
- Croatian Journalists' Association (Hrvatsko novinarsko društvo)
- Media Council, Croatian Helsinki Committee (HHO)
5. National media policies
5.1 Media legislation
As an EU candidate member, Croatia is in process of transposing European laws into its legislation, including the media laws.
The Croatian Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and freedom of the press. It bans censorship, and journalists are entitled to report and to access information. The Constitution also guarantees the right for correction if legal rights are violated by published news.
Croatian media are governed by the Law on Media, the Law on Electronic Media, the Law on Croatian Radio-Television and the Law on the Right to Access Information. In the past several years, they have been harmonized with European standards and underwent the EU screening in July 2006, as part of membership negotiations. The Law on Electronic Media and the Law on Media have transposed a number of provisions from the EU's Television Without Frontiers Directive regarding the amount of independent producers and the amount of Croatian and European audio-visual works. The Law on Electronic Media was amended in late 2009, in line with the 2007 EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive. The amendments also include licenses for specialised media channels and non-for-profit municipal televisions and radio stations. In 2010, amendments are expected to the Law on Croatian Radio-Television in order to ensure political independence of its Programme Council, and to the Law on Media.
Indirectly, the media are also governed by the Criminal Code and Civil Code through provisions about defamation and libel. The 2005 amendments to the Criminal Code on libel have shifted the burden of proof to prosecutor, thus making the most favourable Croatian libel laws. International watchdog organizations have continued advising the government to regulate libel through means other than the criminal law, in particular through use of civil procedures. Provisions for crime against reputation and honour, prosecuted privately, still include libel. Despite the UN and OSCE recommendations that press offences should not be punished by prison terms, four journalists were convicted to suspended prison sentences for libel in 2005. The prison sentences for libel were abolished in 2006.
The Law on the Media entitles all whose rights or interests have been violated by information in the media to publish correction. Editors-in-chief are liable for all information published and to civil proceedings if correction's publication is denied.
The Code of Ethics of the Croatian Journalists' Association is limited to moral condemnation. The Association's Ethical Council decides on cases of Code's violation, but its judgment is limited to making the judgment public. According to laws, autonomy of reporters should be covered by bylaws of individual media; however, only one newspaper (Jutarnji list) adopted such rules.
In absence of official figures, only private research agencies monitor regularly the circulation of printed media and measure the audience of broadcast media: AGB Nielsen, GfK, Media Metar, Mediana Fides and Puls.
5.2 Accountability systems
Concerning restrictions to capital concentration in the media, the Law on Media establishes an upper ceiling for ownership in general information dailies or weeklies at 40 percent of the total market sales.
The Law on Electronic Media allows cross-media ownership of national electronic media ,if the ownership at any other regional, county and city level does not exceed 25 percent. National broadcasting licence excludes ownership in any daily newspapers with circulation above 3,000, or ownership of more than 10 percent in any news agency and vice versa.
National and regional licences prevent licensees from having more than 30 percent share in similar media or in local daily newspapers in the broadcasting area. Broadcasting licences are issued by the Council for Electronic Media, and publishers must report all changes in ownership structures to the Council and to the Agency for Protection of Market Competition. A publisher can have either a radio or a television broadcast.
5.3 Regulatory authority
The Council for Electronic media, besides the power to monitor electronic media, has been authorised by the Law on Electronic Media, amended in late 2009, to issue warnings, file charges, make recommendations, and support self-regulation.
The Committee for Information, ICT and Media is the Parliamentary body authorised to discuss media issues decided by the Parliament; it participates in drafting laws on print and electronic media, discusses laws on right to information, instigates rights to information and communications through new technologies (internet), and promotes use of computers and the internet.
A Telecommunications Users Council was established in 2005 within the national Agency for Telecommunications, as a mediation body in the out-of-court disputes between users and providers of telecommunications services, and as an Agency's advisory body on protection of consumer rights. The Council ceased to exist in early 2009 and its authorities were shifted to the Agency.
Laws, Regulations and Institutions
- Croatian Chamber of Commerce (Hrvatska gospodarska komora)
- Croatian Competition Agency (Agencija za zaštitu tržišnog natjecanja)
- Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski Sabor)
- Croatian Standards Institute (Hrvatski zavod za norme)
- Compendium - Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe
- Electronic Media Agency (Agencija za elektroničke medije)
- EU Screening Report (PDF)
- Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Ministarstvo mora, prometa i infrastrukture)
- South-East Europe Media Organisation
6. Media resources
6.1 Learning and support
The Faculty of Political Sciences, which offers a three year studies of journalism, is a traditional institution for the education of future journalists in Croatia.
A new private school, the High School of Journalism, was launched in 2007 by the NCL Media Group, the publisher of one of the leading political weeklies, Nacional. It is a three year study with combined theoretical and practical courses in various media. The school board members are all prominent public figures - ranging from journalism to politics.
6.2 Prime sources for detailed information
Despite legal provisions about the public right to information on publishers, polls are the only source of information on media readership and audience. The leading research agency that regularly surveys the media is Puls with its MEDIApuls project, which is used by advertising agencies that cover some 90 percent of the advertising revenue of the media other than television. Other agencies that survey the media are GfK, Media Metar and Mediana Fides. The Puls daughter company, AGB Nielsen, is the only researcher of television audiences. Puls and AGB Nielsen also provide data on media advertising.
- Media and Journalism studies
7.1 Development trends
Being an EU candidate country, Croatia is expected to amend its media laws in order to meet more transparency and effectiveness, to remove political influence from the media and to liberalise the telecommunications market. Attention has been steadily focused on independence of the public television HRT and the public news agency HINA. Both appear to encounter problems in implementing standards of professional journalism while protecting themselves from possible political influence. The national television is expected to face open-market issues once Croatia enters the EU. International experts encourage a revision of the professional and ethical evaluation system of the national broadcaster.
In a successful move to secure the leading position on the national TV scene, public television HRT selected new television leadership among politically unaffiliated professionals in early 2004. They sharpened the edge of news reporting, gave more space to professionally anchored political talk shows and introduced new shows that address public interest. New strategy also included local production of largely viewed soaps, regular daily political talk shows on controversial topics, richly produced musical shows. However, the structure soon changed and the new leadership left space for criticism of political influence and power struggles, often ending up in accusations of censorship. During 2009, reporters of national television, joined by reporters from other media, protested against interferences with professional reporting, having attributed such attempts to political interference and pressure from advertisers.
The national Agency for Telecommunications plans to reach full coverage of digital terrestrial television signal by 2011.
- Broadcasting reform and independence need to be consolidated in Croatia, Croatian Institute for International Relations and Open Society Institute Croatia, 2006
- Car, V.: Digital Television in Croatia: Is Television Becoming a New Media?, scientific work, 2007
- Central Bureau Of Statistics (Državni Zavod Za Statistiku)
- Computer Economics, Internet and Broadband Growth Accelerates Worldwide, March 2007
- Croatia 2006 Progress Report, European Commission
- Croatian Government's Action Plan for Implementation of the Development Strategy of Broadband Internet Access in the Republic of Croatia for 2007
- Croatian Law on Electronic Media, Law on Croatian Radio-Television, Law on Media, Law on Telecommunications, Criminal Code, Civil Code
- Croatian National Bank (Hrvatska narodna banka)
- Croatian Telecommunications Market, Croatian Agency for Telecommunications, presentation, 2006
- European Commission, DG Enlargement
- Eurostat 2009 (PDF)
- EU Screening Report 2006, Chapter 10: Information Society and Media
- GfK Internet Monitor reports
- MAVISE - Database of TV companies and TV channels in the EU and candidate countries
- MEDIApuls research by Puls
- OSCE Regular Report to the Permanent Council by the Representative on Freedom of the Media, 2006
- Peruško Z., Jurlin K.: Croatian Media Markets: Regulation and Concentration Trends, IMO, Zagreb, 2006 (summary in PDF)
- Pavičić, T.: Dictatorship of the Capital and the Freedom of the Media (Diktatura kapitala i sloboda medija); paper, Days of Journalism, Croatia, 2007
- Report on the Croatian Media 2006, Croatian Journalists' Association
- Statute of the Electronic Media Agency, 2007
- Television across Europe: regulation, policy and independence (PDF) – Croatia; Open Society Institute, 2005
- Television Audience Measurement by AGB Nielsen
- The World Bank Country Brief 2009
- UNHCR World Report 2009
- Vilović, G., Malović, S.: MEDIJSKA SLIKA HRVATSKE: STRUKTURA I EKONOMIJA MEDIJSKOG SUSTAVA (Image of Croatian Media: Structure and Economy of the Media System), research, 2000
Consultant for communication strategies
Trnsko 12, 10020 Zagreb, Croatia
Tel: +385 14813053